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The Characteristics, Application, and Selection Principles of Storage Shelves

Views:181     Author:Site Editor     Publish Time: 2021-02-08      Origin:Site

Today we introduce the characteristics, application scope, and selection principles of storage shelves.


1. Shelves


Shelves are usually manual storage and retrieval methods. It is an assembled structure with uniformly adjustable layer spacing. The goods are often loose pieces or packaged items that are not very heavy, which are convenient for manual access. The height of the shelf is usually below 2.5m. Otherwise, it is difficult to reach manually (if it is supplemented by a climbing cart, it can be set at about 3m). The unit shelf span (ie length) should not be too long. The unit shelf depth (ie width) should not be too deep. According to the load capacity of each layer of its unit racks, it can be divided into light, medium, and heavy-duty shelf racks. Laminates are mainly steel laminates and wood laminates.


(1) Light-duty storage rack


The load capacity of each layer of the unit rack is not more than 200kg, and the total load is generally not more than 2000kg. The unit shelf span is usually no more than 2m, the depth is no more than 1m (mostly within 0.6m), and the height is generally less than 3m. The most common one is the angle steel column shelf structure, which is light and beautiful in appearance. Light duty shelf racks are mainly suitable for storing light and small items. It has low capital investment and is widely used in electronics, light industry, culture and education, and other industries.


(2) Medium duty rack


The load capacity of each layer of the unit rack is generally between 200~800kg, and the total load is generally not more than 5000kg. The unit shelf span is usually no more than 2.6m, the depth is no more than 1m, and the height is generally less than 3m. If the unit shelf span is within 2m and the layer load is within 500kg, it is usually more appropriate to choose a beamless medium duty racking system. If the unit shelf span is more than 2m, generally only a beam-type medium duty shelving system can be selected.


Compared with the beamed medium racks, the beamless medium rackings have larger adjustable space between layers, are more stable and beautiful, and have better coordination with the environment. They are more suitable for warehouses with higher cleanliness requirements. The beam-type medium duty warehouse shelvings are more industrialized and more suitable for storing metal structure products. Medium shelf racks are widely used and are suitable for all walks of life.


Medium duty rack

(3) Heavy-duty shelving rack


A load of each layer of the unit rack is usually between 500~1500kg, the unit rack span is generally within 3m, the depth is within 1.2m, and the height is unlimited. And usually, it is combined and coexisted with heavy pallet racking. The lower floors are shelf-style, with manual access operations. The part with a height above 2m is usually a pallet rack, and forklifts are used for storage and retrieval. It is mainly used in some situations that require not only the entire deposit and withdrawal but also the zero deposit and zero withdrawal. Heavy duty shelving for sale is more common in large warehouse supermarkets and logistics centers.


2. Pallet racks


Pallet racks, also commonly known as beam racks, or cargo-position racks, are usually heavy-duty racks and are more common in various domestic storage racking systems. First of all, it is necessary to carry out the work of container unitization, that is, the packaging and weight of the goods are assembled into trays, and the type, specification, size, and single pallet weight and a stack height of the pallet are determined (the weight of the single pallet is generally within 2000kg). Then, determine the unit shelf span, depth, and layer spacing. The height of the shelf is determined according to the effective height of the lower edge of the warehouse roof truss and the maximum fork height of the forklift.


The unit shelf span is generally within 4m, the depth is within 1.5m, the shelf height of low and high warehouses is generally within 12m, and the shelf height of super-high warehouses is generally within 30m (such warehouses are basically automated warehouses, and the total shelf height is divided into several sections. Columns within 12m). In such warehouses, most low- and high-level warehouses use forward-moving battery forklifts, counterbalanced battery forklifts, and three-way forklifts for storage and retrieval operations. Electric stackers can also be used when the shelves are short, and stackers can be used for storage and retrieval operations in super-high warehouses.


The metal pallet racks for sale have a high space utilization rate, flexible and convenient access, supplemented by computer management or control, and can basically meet the requirements of modern logistics systems. It is widely used in manufacturing, third-party logistics and distribution centers, and other fields. It is not only suitable for multi-variety and small-batch items, but also for small-variety and high-volume items. The commercial pallet racks are most used in high-position warehouses and ultra-high-position warehouses (most of the shelves in automated warehouses use such shelves).


3. Drive through racking shelves


Drive-through racking systems are also called corridor-type shelves and drive-in pallet racking systems. This system has densely arranged shelves and extremely high space utilization, which is almost twice that of pallet shelves, but the goods must be small in variety and large quantities, and the goods must be first in and out. First of all, it is necessary to carry out the work of container unitization to determine the specifications, load capacity, and a stack height of the pallets. Therefore, the span, depth, and layer spacing of the unit shelves are determined, and the height of the shelves is determined according to the effective height of the lower edge of the warehouse roof truss.


The total shelf depth of the wall area is recommended to be controlled within 6 pallets, and the total depth of the shelf area in the middle area that can be accessed on both sides is recommended to be controlled within 12 pallets to improve the efficiency and reliability of forklift access (In this kind of racking system, the forklift is a continuous "lifting high" operation mode, the forklift is easy to shake and hit the rack).


The drive-in drive-through racking system is weak, and the shelf should not be too high, usually within 10m. And in order to strengthen the stability of the entire shelf system, in addition to larger specifications and selections, a tensioning device must be added. The single pallet should not be too large or heavy. Usually, the weight is controlled within 1500kg, and the pallet span should not be greater than 1.5m. Commonly equipped forklifts are forward-moving battery forklifts or counterbalanced battery forklifts. It is mostly used in dairy, beverage, and other food industries, and it is also more common in cold storage.


Drive through racking shelves

4. Gravity shelves


Gravity racking systems evolved from pallet racks. It adopts a roller track or a bottom wheel pallet with a certain slope (about 30°). Use the weight of the goods to realize the first in, first out of the goods, one side in and the other side out. Gravity feed roller racks are suitable for first-in-first-out storage operations of large quantities and similar goods. Its space utilization rate is very high, especially suitable for goods that have a certain warranty period and are not suitable for long-term backlogs.


The total depth of the shelf (that is, the length of the guide rail) should not be too large, otherwise the unusable upper and lower "dead corners" will be larger, which will affect the space utilization. In addition, if the ramp is lengthened, the controllability of the slide will be poorer. The downward momentum is relatively large, which can easily cause poor sliding, obstruction, and overturning of pallet cargo.


In order to make the slide smoothly, if the slope is long, a damping device should be added in the middle. In order to prevent the pallet cargo from tipping over due to excessive impact when it slides to the bottom end, a buffer device should be installed at the lowest part of the ramp. Therefore, the design, manufacture, and installation of gravity shelves are difficult and costly. Such shelves should not be too high, generally within 6m, and the weight of a single pallet is generally within 1000kg. Otherwise, its reliability and operability will be reduced.


5. Press-in shelves


Press-in racks have also evolved from tray racks. The principle of combining track and pallet trolley is adopted. The track has a certain slope (about 30°). The self-weight of the goods is used to realize the first-in-last-out of the pallet goods, and the same side enters the same side exit. The press-fit rack is suitable for the storage of large quantities and small varieties of goods, with high space utilization and more flexible and convenient access.


The total depth of the shelf should not be too deep, generally within 5 trays. Otherwise, due to the mutual embedding of the pallet trolleys, space will be sacrificed greatly. The weight of a single pallet is generally within 1500kg, and the shelf height is generally within 6m. This type of press-in rack system requires high manufacturing precision of the rack, and the cooperation between the pallet trolley and the guide rail is particularly important. If the manufacturing and installation accuracy is not high, it is very easy to cause the shelf system to run poorly. The cost of such shelves is relatively high.


Press-in shelves

6. Mezzanine racking system


The warehouse mezzanine floor is to build an intermediate loft on the existing work site or shelf to increase storage space. It can be used as a two-story or three-story loft, and it is suitable to store light foam and small and medium-sized goods. Mezzanine floor for sale is suitable for multi-variety large quantities or multi-variety small quantities of goods. Manual access to goods, goods are usually delivered to the second and third floors by forklifts, hydraulic lifts, or freight elevators, and then delivered to a certain location by light trolleys or hydraulic pallet trucks.


This type of system usually uses medium-sized shelf racks or heavy-duty shelf racks as the support of the main body and the floor slab (the rack to choose according to the total load of the unit racks). The floor slab usually uses cold-rolled steel floor slabs and pattern steel floor slabs or steel grille floor.


In recent years, cold-rolled steel floor slabs have been used. Mezzanine racking systems have the advantages of strong carrying capacity, good integrity, good carrying uniformity, high precision, smooth surface, and easy locking. It has many types to choose from, and it is easy to match the lighting system. Access and management are more convenient.


The load capacity of each layer of the unit rack is usually within 500kg, the floor spacing is usually 2.2m~2.7m, and the height of the top shelf is generally about 2m, fully considering the convenience of man-machine operation. Such systems have many applications in the field of auto parts, auto 4S shops, light industry, electronics, and other industries.


7. Steel structure platform


The steel structure platform is usually to build a two-story or three-story fully assembled steel structure platform on the existing workshop (warehouse) site, changing the used space from one to two and three so that space can be fully utilized. The goods are sent to the second and third floors by forklifts or cargo elevators and then transported to the designated locations by trolleys or hydraulic pallet trucks.


Steel structure platform

Compared with the reinforced concrete platform, this kind of platform has the advantages of quick construction, moderate cost, easy installation and disassembly, and easy use, and the structure is novel and beautiful. The column spacing of this kind of platform is usually within 4~6m, the height of the first floor is about 3m, and the height of the second and third floors is about 2.5m. The uprights are usually made of square or round tubes, and the main and auxiliary beams are usually made of H-shaped steel. Floor slabs usually use cold-rolled steel floor slabs, pattern steel floor slabs, steel gratings, etc. The floor load is usually within 1000kg per square meter.


The stainless steel platform enables warehousing and management to get the closest combination. Upstairs or downstairs can be used as a warehouse office. Such systems are mostly used in third-party logistics, machinery manufacturing, and other industries.


8. Cantilever storage racks


Cantilever shelving systems are mainly used to store long materials, such as profiles, pipes, plates, cables, etc. The uprights are mostly H-shaped steel or cold-rolled steel. The cantilever adopts a square tube, cold-rolled steel, or H-shaped steel. The cantilever and the column adopt plug-in type or bolt connection type, the base, and the column adopt bolt connection type, and the base adopts cold-rolled steel or H-shaped steel.


The goods are accessed by forklifts, cranes, or manually. The height of the shelf is usually within 2.5 meters (for example, it can be as high as 6 meters if the goods are retrieved by a forklift), the cantilever length is within 1.5 meters, and the load per arm is usually within 500kg. Cantilever pallet racking shelves are mostly used in the machinery manufacturing industry and building materials supermarkets.


9. Mobile storage systems


Light and medium-sized mobile racks (also called dense racks) evolved from light and medium-sized shelf racks. The dense structure requires only one aisle (about 1m wide). It has good sealing, beautiful and practical, safe and reliable, and it is a kind of shelf with high space utilization. Mobile shelving systems are divided into two types, manual and electric, and the goods are stored and stored manually. The guide rail can be embedded or installed on the ground, and the shelf base runs along the guide rail. The shelves are installed on the base, and each row of shelves can move easily and smoothly through the sprocket drive system. In order to prevent dumping during the operation of the rack system, an anti-dumping device is usually provided. Mainly used in archives, libraries, banks, corporate data rooms, electronic light industry, and other industries.


Heavy-duty mobile racks are evolved from heavy-duty pallet racks. They have a bare structure and only need 1 to 2 aisles, with extremely high space utilization. The structure is similar to light and medium-sized mobile racks, the difference is that heavy-duty mobile racks must be electric. The goods are loaded and unloaded by forklifts, and the passage is usually about 3m. Heavy-duty mobile racks are mainly used in places where the warehouse space is not very large and requires greater use of space, and is suitable for machinery manufacturing and other industries.


After clarifying the various shelves and their characteristics, you can purchase shelves according to specific needs. Weixun Logistics adheres to the concepts of integrity, dedication, pragmatism, and innovation. We have an in-depth outlook on the industry's major trends, in-depth understanding of customer needs, and injects new vitality into the warehousing industry through technological innovation and model innovation.

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Weixun intelligent & Weida logistics are both subsidiaries of Weixun group.
Jiangsu Weixun intelligent is one of the early intelligent warehouse logistics system equipment manufacturers in China.
We have the full line-ups of  racking, shelving and their matched products including  long span shelving, selective pallet rack, drive in rack, mezzanine rack and etc.
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